1. The students should be able to know how life originated and evolved over the Earth. 2. The students should understand a biological domain and general diversity within it. 3. The students should be able to understand nature of life, its evolution and classification. 4. The students shall be prepared to work in biology laboratory, observe microbial life form and carry out biochemical analysis.
Life and its Origin
History of Earth, Theories of origin of life, Millers experiment, Quest for Extra-terrestrial life. Properties of Water, Carbon and Biomolecules. Evolution of Earliest life forms, Viruses, Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Endosymbiont Mitochondria and Chloroplast Cell Theory, Cell differentiation, Levels of organization. Law of Natural Selection. Phylogenetic relation, Whittaker’s five-kingdom classification.
Plant Body: Organ system and Tissues, Stem, root, leaves. Plant Adaptation to land, Plant sensory systems. Growth: Nutritional requirements, Phytohormones, Reproductive structure, Pollination and Fertilization, Asexual reproduction. Common types of plants: Bryophytes, Vascular, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms plants. Outline of Kingdom Plantae.
General characters of animal, Animal evolution, Body organization: Systems, Organs, Tissues, Coordination, Energy requirements. Primitive and advanced marine animals, Adaptation to land, Exchange with Environment, Outline of Kingdom Animalia.
The Microbial World
Bacteria: General character, Diversity, Harmful and Beneficial activities. Eukaryotes: General character, Broad Classification and importance of Fungi, Algae and Protozoa. Viruses: Structure, Chemical composition, Replication cycle. General characters of Prion, Viroid and Virusoid.
1. Elden D Enger, FC Ross and DB Bailey (2011) Concepts in Biology, (14th Ed), TMH 2. Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Jane B. Reece (2017) Campbell Biology (11th Ed), Pearson 3. Mary A Clark, Matthew Douglas, and Jung Choi (2018) Biology (2nd Ed) OpenStax Rice Univ, USA 4. Cowan K and KP Talaro (2009) Microbiology: A Systems Approach, (2nd Ed), McGraw-Hill 5. Purves William K, David Sadava, Gordon H. Orians, and H. Craig Heller (2006) Life: The Science of Biology, (7th Ed), Academic Internet
BTI-102 Practical (Credits 3, Hours 40)
Laboratory course in BTI-101 The Living Being 1. Study of Laboratory Equipment 2. Preparation of Standard Solution, Stains and Buffers 3. Observation of microbes using Hanging-drop preparation 4. Microscopic observation of wet-mount preparation from fungi 5. Monochrome Staining of Yeasts 6. Colorimetric estimation of Protein using Folin’s Method 7. Estimation of reducing sugar by Cole’s method 8. Demonstration of aerobic respiration detecting Catalase
1. The students should be able to know cell as a structural and functional unit of life. 2. The students should understand a structure and chemistry of cell with its components. 3. The students should be able to understand cellular processes linked to its growth, metabolism and expression of traits. 4. The students shall be prepared to handle microbes, observe cellular components and activities, and understand biomolecules.
Life and its Origin
History of Earth, Theories of origin of life, Millers experiment, Quest for Extra-terrestrial life. Properties of Water, Carbon and Biomolecules. Evolution of Earliest life forms, Viruses, Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Endosymbiont Mitochondria and Chloroplast Cell Theory, Cell differentiation, Levels of organization. Law of Natural Selection. Phylogenetic relation, Whittaker’s five-kingdom classification.
Structure of Cell
Chemistry, Ultrastructure and Functions of: Cell wall, Membrane, Flagella and Cilia, Organelles Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Golgi bodies, Peroxysome, Endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosome. Nature of Cytosol, Cytoskeleton structures. Cellular diversity at structural and compositional levels among Prokaryotes, Archeobacteria, and Eukaryotes (Plant, Animal and Fungi). Cellular Metabolism Oxidation-Reduction, Energy and Carbons source utilization, Modes of ATP generation, Generation of Reducing power, Electron Transport Chain and ATP generation. Metabolism: Anabolism, Catabolism, Respiration, Fermentation, Photosynthesis. Nutrient uptake Active transport, Passive transport, Facilitated diffusion, Group translocation. Enzymes: Properties, Mechanism of catalysis, Activation energy, Factors affecting enzyme action.
Cell division, Phases of Mitosis and Meiosis, Significance. Cell cycle: Phases, Check-points, Regulators. Growth: Generation time and Growth rate. Tumor: Types, Developmental stages, Carcinogens, Oncogenes. Apoptosis: Events, Types, Autophagy. Senescence: Theories and Significance. Cell Expression Central dogma of Life, Concept of Gene, Transcription, Translation and expression. Coordination of Metabolism at Enzyme Activity (Allosteric control) and Synthesis (Feed-back regulation and Operon Model) levels. Cell communication: Signal molecules, Receptors, Junction, Plasmodesmata and Cell signaling process.
1. Elden D Enger, FC Ross and DB Bailey (2011) Concepts in Biology, (14th Edn), TMH 2. Purves William K, David Sadava, Gordon H. Orians, and H. Craig Heller (2006) Life: The Science of Biology, (7th Ed), Academic Internet 3. Lodish Harve et al (2008) Molecular Cell Biology, (6th Ed), Freeman 4. Cassimeris Lynne, VR Lingappa and G Plopper (2011) Lewin’s Cells (2nd Ed), Jones and Bartlett 5. 2. Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Jane B. Reece (2017) Campbell Biology (11th Ed), Pearson 6. Mary A Clark, Matthew Douglas, and Jung Choi (2018) Biology (2nd Ed) OpenStax Rice Univ, USA
BTI-104 Practical (Credit 3, Hours 40)
Laboratory course in BTI-103 Cell: Structure and Function 1. Aseptic handling and transfer of microorganisms 2. Observation of bacterial cell wall by Chances staining 3. Staining of Nucleus from human WBCs / Chiromonas 4. Microscopic observation of Mitosis (Onion) and Meiosis (Anther) 5. Study of Human Karyotype staining and banding patterns 6. Cell count and viability ratio by vital stain and Neubauer chamber 7. DNA estimation by colorimetric method using Diphenylamine 8. Glucose estimation by enzymatic method using Glucose oxidase
(a) Lanthanides:- Electron configuration, Oxidation states, Magnetic properties, Color and absorption spectra of lanthanide ions, Lanthanide contraction, Separation and purification of Lanthanides: Ion-exchange and solvent extraction methods. (b) Actinides:- Electron configuration, Oxidation states, Magnetic properties, Color and absorption spectra of actinide ions, actinide contraction, Nuclear synthesis of trans uranic elements, Chain reaction, importance of Uranium, Comparison with lanthanide.
Unit II : Organic Chemistry (14 Marks )
(a) Quantitative Analysis & Determination of Molecular Formula:- Determination of Nitrogen by Kjeldahl’s method and Kjeldahl’s method modified with boric acid . Molecular weight of organic acid by Ag-salt method and organic base by Chloroplatinate method, Numerical based on empirical and molecula formula. (b) Fundamentals of Organic Reactions:- Fission of covalent bond, types of reagents, Substitution Nucleophilic Unimolecular reaction mechanism (SN1 ), Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular reaction mechanism (SN2 ), Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution – Elementary treatment only (Nitration, Sulfonation, Halogenation & Friedel- Crafts Alkylation and Acylation)
Unit III : Organic Chemistry ( 14 Marks )
(a) Alkanes:- (Saturated Hydrocarbons)
Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, Reduction of R-X, Wurtz’s reaction, Hydrolysis of R-Mg-X, Decarboxylation of acid, Kolbe’s electrolytic process, Free radical mechanism (Chlorination of Methane).
Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, Preparations (dehydration, dehalogenation, dehydrohalogenation), Reactions with H2, X2, HX, HOCl, H2SO4, and Hydroboration; Oxidation reactions: (i) with cold alkaline KMnO4 (Baeyer’s reagent), (ii) Oxidative cleavage with acidified or hot KMnO4, (iii) Ozonolysis (O3); Polymerization; Reactions of terminal Acetylenes: (i) Addition of water, (ii) Na / liquid NH3. Unit IV: Physical Chemistry (14 Marks )
(a) Thermodynamics:- Zeroth law, first law, Second law of thermodynamics; proof of 2nd law (Carnot’s Cycle); Entropy, of Gas and calculation of entropy for different processes; Kirchhoff’s equation.
(b) Chemical Kinetics:- Basic terms: molecularity, order of reactions. Unit for rate constant; Derivation of: first order rate constant, Second order rate constant for (a=b) and (a ≠ b). Third-order rate equation (a=b=c). Determination of Half-Life Time for 1st, 2nd and 3rd order reactions.
REFERENCE BOOKS UNIT I :
1. ‘Elements of Quantum Mechanics’ by Michael D. Fayer, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 2. ‘Concise Inorganic Chemistry’ by J. D. Lee, 5/E, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 3. ‘Basic Inorganic Chemistry’ by F. A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Wiley publication. 4. ‘Inorganic Chemistry’ by Shriver & Atkins, 4/E, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 5. ‘Introductory Quantum Chemistry’ by A. K. Chandra , 4/E , Tata MacGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
UNIT II & III :
1. ‘Organic Chemistry’ by G. Marc Loudon, 4/E, 2010, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition, 2. ‘Organic Chemistry’ by Robert Thornot Morrison, Robert Neilson Boyd, 6/E, 1992, Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 3. ‘Text book of Organic Chemistry’ by P. L. Soni and H. M. Chawla, 26/E, 1995, Sultan Chand & Sons Publication, New Delhi. 4. ‘Text book of Organic Chemistry’ by P. S. Kalsi, 1999, MacMillan of India Pvt. Ltd. 5. ‘Organic Chemistry’ by Bhupinder Mehta, Manju Mehta, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. UNIT IV : 1. ‘Elements of Physical Chemistry’ by Peter Atkins & Julio De Paula, 5/E, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 2. ‘Physical Chemistry’ by P. W. Atkins, 7/E, 2002, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 3. ‘Physical Chemistry’ by W. J. Moore, MacGraw Hill Publication, 1996, 6/E. 4. ‘Principle of Physical Chemistry’ by Puri, Sharma & Pathania, 41/E, Vishal Publishers. 5.‘Essentials of Physical Chemistry’ by Bahl & Tuli. 22/E, S.Chand publication New Delhi . 6.‘Advanced Physical Chemistry’ by Gurdeep Raj, 19/E, Goel Publishing House Meerut.
Practical Paper 102
(a) Volumetric Analysis (Acid and Base) (1) Preparation and Standardization of NaOH and HCl (2) Succinic Acid ———NaOH (3) Oxalic Acid ———– NaOH (Hydrated & Anhydrous) (4) Na2CO3 ———————-HCl (b) Inorganic Qualitative Analysis (Two Radicals) (Minimum Eight Salts) Water Soluble and Insoluble Inorganic salts of following cations and anions: Cations: Na+ , K+ , NH4 + , Mg2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Cr3+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Co3+, Pb2+, Cu2+. Anions : S2–, SO4 2–, CO3 2–, PO4 3–, CrO4 2–, Cl– , Br– , I – , NO3 – , O2–.
1. ‘Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Chemical analysis’ Revised by G. H. Jeffery, J. Bassett, J. Mendham & R. C. Denney, 5/E, ELBS (English Language Book Society) Longman. 2. ‘Analytical Chemistry’ by Dhruba Charan Dash, PHI Learning Private Ltd, New Delhi, 2011. 3. ‘Analytical Chemistry’ by Gary D. Christian, 4/E, John Wiley & Sons 4. ‘Advanced Practical Inorganic Chemistry’ by Gurdeep Raj, 9/E, Goel Publishing House, Meerut. 5. ‘Vogel’s Textbook of Macro and Semimicro Qualitative Inorganic Analysis’, 5/E, Orient Longman Ltd.
(a) Chemical Bonding:- Covalent bond-Sidgwick Powel Theory, VSEPR Theory, Examples of NH3, H2O, ClF3, SF4, SF6, I3 – , IF7; Hybridization of atomic orbitals; Rules for Hybridization; Types of Hybridization and shape of some molecules (sp, sp2 , sp3 , sp3 d, sp3 d2 ). (b) Complex Compound:- Werner’s Theory; Labile and inert complexes; Stability of complex compounds; Factors influencing the stability of complexes; Spectrochemical Series; V. B. theory for complexes – Examples of ML4 & ML6 type (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn).
UNIT II : Inorganic Chemistry:- ( 14 Marks )
(a) Introduction of Wave Mechanics:- Wave equation and wave functions, its interpretation, significance of Ψ and Ψ2 , Limitations of acceptable wave functions, Normalized and orthogonal (orthonormal) wave functions, Eigen values and Eigen functions (b) Operator Concept in Quantum Chemistry:- Operators, type of operators, Hamiltonian Operator for H atom, H2 molecule, H2 + ion, He, Li, Be and B atom.
UNIT III : Organic Chemistry:- ( 14 Marks )
(a) Fundamentals of Stereochemistry:- Introduction, Stereochemical aspects of organic molecules, Chirality, Optical isomerism, Enantiomers and Diastereomers, R-S nomenclature, E-Z nomenclature. (b) Conformations:- Conformational analysis of Ethane, n-Butane & Cyclohexane.
UNIT IV: Physical Chemistry:- ( 14 Marks )
(a) Ionic equilibrium:-
Definition of basic terms: Electrical conductance, Specific conductance Equivalent conductance, Molar conductance, Cell constant & degree of Dissociation; Derivation of Oswald’s dilution law , its applications and Limitations; pH Scale, Hydrolysis, Relation between Ka , Kb , Kh , & Kw for Strong acid Æ Strong base Strong acid Æ Weak base Weak acid Æ Strong base Buffer Solution, (Henderson – Hasselbalch equation), Indicator theory, Useful pH range of indicator for acid base titration.
(b) Nuclear Chemistry:-
Radioactivity, Rutherford’s disintegration theory, Soddy’s group Displacement law, Packing fraction, Factors affecting stability of Nucleus (Mass defect, Binding energy, N / P ratio) .
UNIT I & II :
1. ‘Elements of Quantum Mechanics’ by Michael D. Fayer, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition, 2. ‘Concise Inorganic Chemistry’ by J. D. Lee, 5/E, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 3. ‘Basic Inorganic Chemistry’ by F. A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Wiley publication. 4. ‘Inorganic Chemistry’ by Shriver & Atkins, 4/E, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 5. ‘Introductory Quantum Chemistry’ by A. K. Chandra , 4/E , Tata MacGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited New Delhi.
UNIT III :
1. ‘Organic Chemistry’ by G. Marc Loudon, 4/E, 2010, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 2. ‘Organic Chemistry’ by Robert Thornot Morrison, Robert Neilson Boyd, 6/E, 1992, Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 3. ‘Text book of Organic Chemistry’ by P. L. Soni and H. M. Chawla, 26/E, 1995, Sultan Chand & Sons Publication, New Delhi. 4. ‘Text book of Organic Chemistry’ by P. S. Kalsi, 1999, MacMillan of India Pvt. Ltd. 5. ‘Organic Chemistry’ by Bhupinder Mehta, Manju Mehta, Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi. UNIT IV : 1. ‘Elements of Physical Chemistry’ by Peter Atkins & Julio De Paula, 5/E, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 2. ‘Physical Chemistry’ by P. W. Atkins, 7/E, 2002, Oxford University Press, Indian Edition. 3. ‘Physical Chemistry’ by W. J. Moore, MacGraw Hill Publication, 1996, 6/E. 4. ‘Principle of Physical Chemistry’ by Puri, Sharma & Pathania, 41/E, Vishal Publishers. 5. ‘Essentials of Physical Chemistry’ by Bahl & Tuli. 22/E, S. Chand publication New Delhi . 6. ‘Advanced Physical Chemistry’ by Gurdeep Raj, 19/E, Goel Publishing House, Meerut. SEMESTER II
Practical Paper 104
(a) Organic Spotting :- ( 06 Solids and 04 Liquids). List organic compounds having different mono functional groups: Solids : Acids : (i) Benzoic acid (ii) Oxalic acid (iii) Succinic acid Phenols : (i) β-Napthol (ii) α-Napthol Neutral : (i) Urea (ii) Thiourea (iii) Benzamide (iv) Napthalene Liquids : (i) Aniline (ii) Nitrobenzene (iii) Benzaldehyde (iv) Ethanol (v) Ethylacetate (vi) Chloroform (vii) Chlorobenzene (viii) Acetone (b) Volumetric Analysis:- Redox Titrations:- (1) KMnO4……………… FeSO4.7H2O (2) K2Cr2O7………………FeSO4 (NH4) 2SO4.6H2O
Complexometric Titration by EDTA:- (1) Estimation of Ca+2 …………….. EDTA (2) Estimation of Mg+2…… .……….. EDTA
1. ‘Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Chemical analysis’ Revised by G. H. Jeffery, J. Bassett, J. Mendham & R. C. Denney, 5/E, ELBS (English Language Book Society) Longman. 2. ‘Analytical Chemistry’ by Dhruba Charan Dash, PHI Learning Private Ltd, New Delhi, 2011. 3. ‘Analytical Chemistry’ by Gary D. Christian , 4/E, John Wiley & Sons. 4. ‘Comprehensive Practical Organic Chemistry – Qualitative Analysis’ by V. K. Ahluwalia, Sunita Dhingra University Press (India) Private Limited, Hyderabad, First Indian Reprint 2010. 5. ‘Organic Analytical Chemistry theory and Practice’ by Mohan Jag, Narosa Publication, New Delhi. (2003). 6. ‘Elementary Practical Organic Chemistry Part-2, Qualitative Organic Analysis’ by Arthur I. Vogel,-CBS Publishers & Distributers, New Delhi.(Second edition, reprint 2004) 7. ‘Advanced practical Organic Chemistry’ by J. Leonard, B. Lygo, G. Procter, (First Indian reprint , 2004),Publication-Stanley Thornes ( Publishers) Ltd.
[A] Carbohydrates [Marks -8] Introduction, classification of carbohydrates, osazone formation, epimerization, step up and step down reactions of monosaccharides, simple structures of glucose and fructose, Fischer’s proof of configuration of D-glucose. [B] Amino acid : [Marks -6] Introduction of amino acid, Classification and properties of amino acids, Zwitter ion , Isoelectric point, Strecker’s and Gabreil pthalimide synthesis of amino acids.
[A] Electrophilic aromatic Substitution: [Marks -8] Introduction, effect of substituent groups, determination of orientation and relative reactivity, classification of substituent groups, electrophilic substitution (ES) reactions. (Nitration, Sulfonation, Halogenation, Friedel Craft alkylation and acylation), Orientation in mono and disubstituted benzene. [B] Polynuclear hydrocarbon [Marks -6] Nomenclature, structure and synthesis of Naphthalene and its derivatives. Reactions (oxidation, reduction and electrophilic substitution reaction (ESR)) of naphthalene.
[A] Heterocyclic Compounds [Marks -8] Introduction, structure of Pyrrole, Furan and Thiophene, Paal Knorr synthesis and electrophilic substitution of Pyrrole, Furan and Thiophene, reactivity and orientation of electrophilic substitution reactions (ESR) in five membered heterocycles (Pyrrole, Furan and Thiophene) Structure of Pyridine, Electrophilic and Nucleophilic substitution reactions of pyridine. Basicity of pyridine. [B] ȕ-dicarbonyl compounds [Marks -6] Introduction, synthesis of Ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) and Diethylmalonate Acidic and ketonic hysrolysis of ȕ-dicarbonyl compounds, Synthetic applications of ȕ-dicarbonyl compounds. (i) Crotonic acid from EAA (ii) Valeric Acid from diethyl malonate Unit-IV Chemical Reactivity and Molecular Structure: (Acid- Base Properties) [Marks-14]
Acid-Bases, scale of acidity-basicity, Resonance effect, drawing of structures and the condition for resonance, Effect of change of hybridization on acidity and basicity, Inductive and electronic effects, steric effect and hydrogen bonding, Lewis acid and bases, Keto – enol tautomerism . Difference between resonance and tautomerism. REFERENCES 1. Robert Thornot Morrison and Robert Neilson Boyd, “Organic Chemistry”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, Sixth Edition, 1992. 2. Bhupinder Mehta, Manju Mehta, “Organic Chemistry”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2005. 3. James B Hedrickson Donald J. Cram and George S. Hammond, “Organic Chemistry”, Mc-Graw-Hill Kogakusha,Ltd., Third Edition. 4. Arun Bahl, B. S. Bahl, “Advance Organic Chemistry”, S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi, First Edition, 2003. 5. I. L. Finar, “Organic Chemistry”, Pearson Education Pet Ltd, New Delhi, First Edition, 2002. 6. G. Marc Loudon, “Organic Chemistry”, Oxford University Press, Forth Indian edition, 2010. 7. P.S.Kalsi, “Text book of Organic Chemistry”, MacMillan of India Pvt. Ltd., 1999. 8. P.L. Soni and H.M. Chawala, “Textbook of Organic Chemistry”, Sultan Chand & Sons Publication, New Delhi, 26th Edition, 1995.
Semi micro method of analysis of inorganic mixture containing four radicals (excluding phosphate, arsenite, arsenate and borate) Minimum eight mixtures should be performed. Mixture may be partly soluble in water and soluble in acid.
[B] Physical Experiment
1. To determine the relative strength between HCl and H2SO4 by studying hydrolysis of methyl acetate. 2. To determine the temperature coefficient and energy of activation of hydrolysis of methyl acetate catalyzed by acid. 3. To study the adsorption of an organic acid by Animal Charcoal. (Acetic acid /Oxalic acid). 4. Conductometric titration. (i) Strong acid ĺ Strong base (HCl ĺ NaOH) (ii) Weak acid ĺ Strong base (CH3COOH ĺ NaOH) (iii) Mixture of acidsĺ Strong base (HCl+CH3COOH ĺ NaOH) 5. To determine specific refraction and molar refraction of liquid A,B and its Mixture 6. To determine absolute viscosities of liquid A, B and its Mixture
1. Vogel’s “Textbook of Quantitative chemical Analysis”, Pearson Education Ltd. Sixth Edition, 2008. 2. Vogel’s “Qualitative Inorganic Analysis”, Pearson Education Ltd. Seventh Edition, 2009. .3. Gurdeep Raj, “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry”, Goel Publishing House, Meerut, Volume –I, 24th Revised Edition,1998. 4. J .B.Yadav , “Advance Physical Practical Chemistry”, Goel Publishing House, Meerut 6. P.H.Parsania, “Experiments in Physical Chemistry”, Neminath Printers Rajkot First Edition 2004. 7. A.M.. James and F.E.Prichard “Practical Physical Chemistry”, Longman Group Limited London Third Edition Reprinted 1979
1. Development of microbiology as a new discipline of biological science(10 Hrs)
a. Discovery of microbial world: Establishment of theory of biogenesis, Discovery of viruses. Developments in pure culture techniques. b. Establishment of germ theory of diseases and fermentation. Work of Lister and principles of aseptic surgery. Discovery and developments of vaccines and modern chemotherapy. c. Work of Winogradsky and Beijerinck. Discovery of microorganisms as plant pathogens.
2. The Microbial World (10 Hours)
a. Distribution of microorganisms in nature. b. Diversity in microbial habitat. Types of microorganisms. c. Introduction to prokaryotic world, eukaryotic microorganisms, viruses and other acellular microorganisms.
3. A Significance of Microbiology (10 Hours)
a. Impact of microorganisms in environment and its impact on human life. b. Branches of microbiology c. Thrust areas of microbiology: genetic engineering and biotechnology
B Pure culture techniques
a. Definition: Pure culture and axenic culture b. Principles and methods of obtaining pure culture c. Preservation of pure culture, culture collection centers
4. Techniques used to study microorganisms (10 Hours)
a. Microscopy i. Principles of microscopy, magnification and resolving power ii. Light microscopy: simple and compound microscope. Bright field and dark field microscopy. Principles and application of phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy iii. Electron microscopy: general principles. Types of electron microscopy, their principles working and limitations. b. Staining i. Dyes and stains: Definition, acidic basic dyes and leucocompounds. ii. Smear: Fixation use of mordent, intensifiers and decolorizer. iii. Mechanism of staining. Types of staining: simple and differential staining iv. Application of stains and dyes in study of microbiology
Microbiology: Pelczar M J, Chan E C S and Kreig N R Tata Mc Grow Hill Suggested reading: • General Microbiology: R Y Stanier, Adelberg E A and J L Ingraham, Mac Millan Press Inc. • Introduction to microbiology: Ingraham J L and Ingraham C A Thomson Brooks/ Cole • Principles of microbiology R M Atlas Wm C brown Publishers • Brock’s biology of Microorganisms Madigan M T and Martinko J M Pearson Education Inc • Microbiology: An introduction: Tortora G J, Funke B R and Case C L Pearson Education Inc
1. Study of principles and working of laboratory instruments Light microscope, Autoclave, Hot air oven, Incubator, Bacteriological filter, Rotary shaker, pH meter, Spectrophotometer, Centrifuge. 2. Cleaning and preparation of glass ware for sterilization 3. Disposal of laboratory waste and cultures 4. Study of Hay infusion 5. Study of bacterial motility 6. Measurement of size of bacteria and yeast by use of micrometer 7. Staining of bacteria a. Simple staining i. Positive staining ii. Negative staining b. Differential staining: Gram staining 8. Study of permanent slides of different groups of microorganisms a. Prokaryotes – bacteria Cocci, Short rods, Bacilli, Spirochetes, Curved bacteria, Filamentous bacteria – Actinomycetes, b. Eukaryotic organisms a. Fungi: Yeast, Mucor, Rhizopus, Aspergillus, Penicillium, b. Algae: Diatoms, Spirogyra c. Protozoa: Amoeba, Paramecium, Plasmodium 10. Preparation of nutrient media: Nutrient agar and Nutrient broth 11. pH adjustment of media by use of pH strip and pH meter 12. Study of presence of microorganisms in different habitat – environment Air, Water, Soil, Food, Milk, Curd, Skin, Surface of table, 13. Isolation of bacteria by streak plate method
Scheme for practical examination
Ex 1 Staining of bacteria 15 Marks Ex 2 Isolation of bacteria 15 Marks Ex 3 General exercise: pH adjustment / Operation of laboratory 10 marks Instrument / Study of Hay infusion / Micrometry Ex 4 Spotting 15 Marks Ex 5 Viva voce 10 Marks Ex 6 Journal 05 Marks
a. Shape, size and arrangement of bacteria. b. Structure of bacterial cell i. Surface appendages of bacteria: General nature, arrangement, structure and role of flagella, General nature and significance of pili, prosthecae and stalks ii. Surface layers of bacteria: General nature and significance of capsule and slime layer, bacterial cell wall, Cell membrane and Mesosomes iii. Bacterial cytoplasm and cell organelles: Cytoplasm, cytoplasmic inclusions, nuclear material c. Bacterial endospore: Spore structure, sporulation and spore germination
2. Introduction to bacterial nutrition. (10 Hours)
a. Nutritional diversities in bacteria. b. Nutritional requirements of bacteria. c. Culture media: Principles of media formulation. Media ingredients. Types of culture media. d. Cultivation methods of bacteria. Characteristics of growth in broth and solid media
3. Principles of microbial control. (10 Hours)
a. General principles: Control by killing, inhibition and removal. b. Physical agents of microbial control: Heat, Radiation, Osmotic pressure, Filtration c. Chemical agents of microbial control: Ideal antimicrobial chemical agent. Major groups of antimicrobial chemical agent: Phenolics, Halogens, Surfactants, Alcohols, Dyes, Heavy metals and gaseous agents
4. Introduction to bacterial taxonomy and nomenclature (10 Hours)
a. Principles of binomial system of nomenclature
b. Introduction to different systems of bacterial classification, Whittaker’s and Carl Woese system of classification c. Introduction to Bergey’s Manual of systematic bacteriology.
Microbiology: Pelczar M J, Chan E C S and Kreig N R Tata Mc Grow Hill Suggested reading: • General Microbiology: R Y Stanier, Adelberg E A and J L Ingraham, Mac Millan Press Inc. • Introduction to microbiology: Ingraham J L and Ingraham C A Thomson Brooks/ Cole • Principles of microbiology R M Atlas Wm C brown Publishers
• Brock’s biology of Microorganisms Madigan M T and Martinko J M Pearson Education Inc • Microbiology: An introduction: Tortora G J, Funke B R and Case C L Pearson Education Inc
Course MI-104 (Practicals)
1. Preparation and study of different types of culture media Mac-Conkeys’s agar medium, Glucose yeast agar medium, Thioglycolate broth medium, Robertson’scooked meat medium, Potato dextrose agar medium, Rose Bengal agar medium 2. Cultivation methods for bacteria a. Broth culture b. Agar slope / slant culture c. Agar plate method i. Streak plate method ii. Pour plate method iii. Spread plate method 3. Cultivation of anaerobic bacteria by use of a. Robertson’s cooked meat medium b. Thioglycolate broth c. Anaerobic jar (Demonstration only) 4. Preservation of microbial cultures a. Periodic sub culturing and storage at refrigeration temperature b. Soil culture method for fungi 5. Study of pigmented bacteria a. Staphylococcus aureus b. Staphylococcus epidermidis c. Micrococcus luteus d. Serratia marscecens e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6. Study of bacterial structure by use of structural staining a. Endospore by use of Doerner’s method b. Cell wall by use of Dyer’s method c. Capsule by use of Hiss’s method 7. Use of special staining technique to study bacteria a. Spirochetes by use of Fontana’s staining method 8. Study of effect of various physical and chemical agents on growth of microorganisms a. Study of effect of temperature and osmotic pressure on growth of microorganisms b. Study of effect of chemicals on microbial growth i. Study of effect of heavy metal ions and their oligodynemic action on bacteria ii. Use of agar cup method to study effect of chemicals: phenol, HgCl2, Crystal violet
Scheme for practical examination
Ex 1 Staining of bacteria: Structural staining or special staining 20 Marks Ex 2 Study of effect of physical or chemical agent on growth of bacteria/ 20 Marks Isolation and Cultivation of bacteria Ex 3 Spotting 15 Marks Ex 4 Viva voce 10 Marks Ex 5 Journal 05 Marks
Chemical structure, Properties, Classification and Biological significance of A. Carbohydrates (03) B. Proteins (03) C. Lipids (02) D. Nucleic acids (02)
1. General Introduction (04) A. Physical and chemical properties B. Structure of enzymes: Prosthetic group, apoenzyme, coenzyme, cofactors. C. Localization of enzymes: Extra cellular and intra cellular D. Nomenclature and classification of enzymes, IUB system of enzyme classification. 2. Enzyme action (06) A. Active site of enzymes B. Mechanism of enzyme action. C. Factors affecting enzyme activity D. Inhibition of enzyme activity: Competitive and Non competitive
Unit 3 Microbial Nutrition and Introduction to Metabolism
1 Modes of Nutritional uptake: (04) Entry of nutrients in cell, Passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. 2 Classification of bacteria on the basis of growth supporting environmental factors such as oxygen, temperature, pH, osmotic pressure, salt and hydrostatic pressure. (04) 3 Introduction to microbial metabolism (02) i) Anabolism, catabolism, primary and secondary metabolism ii) Role of reducing power, precursor metabolites and energy rich compounds in cell metabolism
Unit 4 Microbial growth
1. Methods of reproduction in bacteria and new cell formation 2. Growth A. Introduction to growth rate, generation time B. Criteria for growth measurement: Cell mass and Cell number, methods of their measurement C. Normal growth curve of bacteria D. Continuous growth and synchronous growth. 3. Chemotherapeutic agents as growth inhibitors A. Principles of chemotherapy B. General mode of action of various chemotherapeutic agents: Sulfonamides, Antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin, polymyxin)
1. PelczarJr, M J, Chan E C S, Krieg N R, (1986) Microbiology, 5thedn, McGraw-Hill Book company, NY 2. IngrahamJ L, and Ingraham, C L, (2000) Introduction to Microbiology, 2nd edn, Brooks/Cole, Singapore 3. Black J G, (2002) Microbiology: Principles and Explorations, 5thedn, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. NY.
Soil and Water Microbiology
Unit 1Microbiology of Soil
1 Physicochemical characteristics of soil, soil as culture media and soil microflora 2 Methods to study soil flora: Direct microscopic methods, agar plate technique, enrichment culture technique, buried slide technique and soil respiration technique 3 Microbial interactions in soil A Neutral, positive and negative associations B Interaction between plant roots and microorganisms I) Rhizosphere and its significance II) Mycorrhiza
Unit 2 Microorganisms as Biogeochemical Agents
1 Introduction to biogeochemical transformations in soil: Mineralization and immobilization of elements 2 Rotation of elements in nature A. Nitrogen Cycle B. Sulphur Cycle C. Carbon Cycle D. Iron Cycle E. Phosphorous Cycle 3 Soil fertility: Biofertilizers
Unit 3 Microbiology of Drinking Water
1 Natural waters: Sources of contamination 2 Microbial indicators of fecal pollution A. Coliforms as indicator B. Methods for differentiation: IMViC test and Elevated temperature test C. Microbial indicators other than coliforms 3 Nuisance organisms in water: Slime forming bacteria, Iron and Sulphur bacteria and Algae 4 Water borne diseases 5 Bacteriology examination of drinking water A. Sampling B. Quantitative analysis: Total viable count, Membrane filter technique C. Qualitative analysis: Detection of coliforms (presumptive, confirm and completed test) Defined substrate test, P-A (Presence Absence test) 6 Purification of drinking water: sedimentation, filtration and disinfection
Unit 4 Microbiology of Waste water
1 Types of waste water, Chemical and Microbiological characteristics of waste water 2 BOD, COD and TOD as indicators of untreated waste water, Pollution problems due to disposal of untreated waste 3 Methods of waste water treatment A. Primary treatment and secondary treatment: Principles and role of microorganisms in: Septic tank, Imhoff tank, trickling filters, activated sludge process and oxidation ponds B. Advanced treatment and final treatment C. Solid waste processing: Anaerobic sludge digestion and composting
1. PelczarJr, M J, Chan E C S, Krieg N R, (1986) Microbiology, 5thedn, McGraw-Hill Book Company,NY. 2. Alexander M, (1977), Soil Microbiology, 2 nd Edition Krieger Publ. Co. Melbourne, FL 3. Atlas R M, (1977), Principles of Microbiology2 nd Edition, Wm. C. Brown Publ. Iowa USA
1 Study of different types of media A. Selective media: Rose Bengal agar medium B. Differential medium: MacConkey’s agar medium, EMB agar medium, Triple sugar iron agar medium C. Enrichment media: Selenite broth D. Enriched media: Blood agar medium, Glucose yeast extract agar medium E. Natural media: Soil extract agar medium, 2 Qualitative analysis of biomolecules A. Carbohydrates: Iodine test, Molisch’s test, Benedict’s test, Barfoed’s test, Bial’s test and Seliwanoff’s test B. Protein: Biuret test, Ehrlich’s test, Glyoxilic acid test and Xanthoproteic test 3 Study of effect of antimicrobial compounds on growth of bacteria A. Study of effect of heavy metal on growth of bacteria B. Study of effect of chemicals (5% phenol, 1% crystal violet and 0.001% HgCl2)on growth of bacteria (Agar cup method) C. Study of effect of antibiotics on growth of bacteria using paper disc method D. Study of effect of antibiotic on growth of bacteria using agar ditch method 4 Study of Biochemical reactions A Based on Carbon source i. Oxidative and fermentative breakdown of glucose ii. Fermentation of Sugars: Glucose, Xylose, Mannitol, Lactose, Maltose and Sucrose iii. Glucose break down products: Methyl red test and Voges Proskauer’s test iv. Citrate utilization test v. Starch utilization test vi. Lipid utilization test B Based on Nitrogen source i. Indole production test ii. H2S production test iii. Urea utilization test iv. Casein hydrolysis test v. Gelatin Hydrolysis test vi. Deamination test vii. Ammonia production test viii. Nitrate reduction test C Other tests i. Catalase test ii. Dehydrogenase test iii. Oxidase test 5 Microbiological analysis of soil A. Enumeration of organisms from soil (Standard plate count) B. Isolation and cultivation of symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria, Actinomycetes and Fungi (Mucor, Rhizophus, Aspergillus and Penicillium) from soil 6 Microbiological analysis of drinking water A. Standard plate count B. Detection of fecal pollution of water by performing presumptive, confirmed and completed test C. Determination of MPN of coliforms in water 7 Study of skin flora 8 Study of Air flora by settling plate technique
Scheme for Practical Examination Exercise Marks
1 Microbiological Analysis of soil/water A. Standard plate count B. MPN C. Presumptive and confirmed test D. Confirmed and completed test 2 Biochemical reactions (any five) 3 General Exercise (any one) A. Study of effect of antimicrobial agents on growth of bacteria (antibiotics, heavy metals and Chemicals) B. Qualitative analysis of protein/carbohydrates C. Study of cultural and morphological characters of Actinomycetes/Fungi D. Cultivation and study of nitrogen fixing bacteria from soil E. Study of Air flora F. Study of skin flora 4 Spotting 5 Vive voce 6 Journal and slides
A. Gram negative spiral and curved rods 1) Spirocheatales 2) Spiral bacteria: Spirillum and Azospirillum 3) Curved rods: Bdellovibrio, Desulfovibrio B. Gram negative aerobic rods and cocci 1) Pseudomonadaceae: Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas 2) Neisseriaceae: Neisseria
C. Gram-negative anaerobic and facultative rods and cocci
1) Enterobacteriaceae: E coli, Serratia, Enterobacter, Proteus, Shigella, Salmonella 2) Vibrionaceae: Vibrio, Photobacterium 3) Veillonellaceae: Veillonella D. Obligatory Parasites 1) Rickettsiaceae: Rickettsia, Coxiella 2) Chlamydiaceae: Chlamydia 3) Mollicutes: Mycoplasma Unit 4 Eubacteria III (Selected genera) A. Gram positive rods and cocci 1) Micrococcaceae: Staphylococcus 2) Deinococcaceae: Deinococcus 3) Other genera: Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Peptococcus 4) Endospore formers: Bacillus, Clostridium 5) Non spore forming Rods: Lactobacillus B. Gram positive irregular rods 1) Nonfilamentous rods: Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter 2) Aerobic curved rods: Mycobacterium 3) Nocardioforms: Nocardia C. Filamentous bacteria with complex morphology: Frankia, Streptomyces D. Bacteria with unusual morphology 1) Prosthecate budding/nonbudding bacteria: Hyphomicrobium, Caulobacter 2) Nonprosthecate budding/nonbudding bacteria: Planctomyces, Gallionella 3) Sheathed bacteria: Spherotilus, Crenothrix, Leptothrix 4) Gliding fruiting/nonfruiting bacteria: Myxobacteria, Beggiatoa Note: (Content of syllabus should not be beyond the prescribed text book) Textbook: Atlas R M, (2015), Principles of Microbiology 2 nd Edition, McGraw Hill education, Mumbai
Garrity George M, Noel R Krieg et al (2011) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (Vol. I to IV) 2ndedition, Editors James T Staley and Aidan C Parte Springer Semester IV MI-205
Food and Dairy Microbiology
Unit I Microbes in Food Infection and Poisoning
1. Food as a substrate for microorganisms 2. Microbial flora of food: fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs, biochemical, temperature and pathogenic types of milk 3. Factors affecting kinds and numbers of microorganisms: intrinsic and extrinsic 4. Food and milk borne infections: Microorganism involved, source of infection, Incubation period and characteristics in brief: A. Bacterial infections: Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., E. coli, Vibrio sp., Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes B. Viral infections: RotavirusHepatitis A Poliovirus C. Protozoal infections: Entamoeba 5. Food poisoning: A. Role of Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinium and Salmonella spp B. Molds as poisoning agents: Role of Mushroom, Aspergillus, Claviceps purpurea, Fusarium moniliformis.
Unit II Microbial Food Spoilage and Preservation
1. Microbial Spoilage of food A. Spoilage of milk and milk products, fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat B. Spoilage of canned foods 2. Preservation of food and Milk A. General principles B. Methods of preservation i. Use of aseptic handling ii. High temperature: Pasteurization, sterilization, canning iii. Low temperature: Refrigeration and freezing iv. Dehydration v. Osmotic pressure vi. Preservatives vii. Radiations: Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation
Unit IIIMicrobes as Food and Food Products
1. Fermented dairy products A. Starter culture B. Cheese: Types, curdling, processing, ripening C. Other fermented dairy products: Yogurt, cultured buttermilk, acidophilus milk, Kefir and cultured sour milk D. Introduction to probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics 2. Fermented food products: Pickles, sauerkraut and bread 3. Microbes as food: Mushrooms, spirulina and yeasts
Unit IV Methods in Food Microbiology
1. Biological methods: Generalized scheme for microbiological examination A. Direct microscopic examination, colony forming units (CFU) B. Most probable number (MPN) C. Identification of specific group or species of microorganisms 2. Bacteriological analysis of milk A. Grading of milk: Methylene Blue Reduction and Resazurin test B. Determination of efficiency of pasteurization: Phosphatase test C. Determination of MPN D. Acid-fast staining 3. Microbiological criteria of food safety: A. Microbial standards for food B. FDA, BIS, Food Safety and Standard Act of India C. Food certification marks in India: ISI, Agmark, FPO, BIS, FSSAI Text Books: 1. Pelczar Jr, M J, Chan E C S, Krieg N R, (1986), Microbiology: AnApplication Based Approach, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY 2. Frazier W C and Westhoff D C (1988), Food Microbiology, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY 3. Prescott L, Harley J P, and Klein D A, (2008), Microbiology, 7th edn. Wm C. Brown – McGraw Hill, Dubuque, IA. 4. Indian Standards: Food Hygiene-Microbiological Criteria-Principles for Establishment and Application 5. Fssai: Manual of methods of analysis of foods- food safety and standards authority of India, Ministry of health and family welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2015
1. Study of bacterial diversity in soil by using Winogradsky column (Demonstration only) 2. Study of bacterial motility 3. Measurement of bacterial yeast and fungal cell size using micrometer 4. Pure culture study: Morphological, Cultural and Biochemical Characters A. Gram positive bacteria: Staphyloccus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, B megaterium and B cereus B. Gram negative bacteria: E coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeuginosa 5. Isolation and cultivation of yeast 6. Study of permanent slides: Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, Diatoms and Spirogyra 7. Microbiological analysis of food A. Standard plate count B. Determination of MPN of coliforms 8. Microbiological analysis of milk A. Standard plate count B. Determination of microbial load by use of MBRT and RRT of raw, boiled and pasteurized milk C. Detection of fecal coliforms D. Detection of Acid fast bacteria in milk Scheme for Practical Examination Exercise Marks 1 Microbiological Analysis of food/milk (15) A. Standard plate count B. MPN C. Presumptive and confirmed test D. Confirmed and completed test E. MBRT/RRT and Acid fast staining 2 Pure culture study (any one)
3 General Exercise (any one) A. Isolation and cultivation of yeast B. Study of Bacterial motility C. Micrometry 4 Spotting 5 Vive voce 6 Journal and slides
1. Nature of Genetic material (3 hr) A. Understanding of terms: Chromosome, Nucleoid, Plasmid, Genome, Genetic material, Gene, Genotype, Phenotype, Replicon B. Experimental proof for DNA as genetic material: Work of Griffith; Avery, McCarty and MacLeod; Hershey and Chase 2. Structure of DNA (2 hr) A. The elucidation of DNA structure B. Watson-Crick’s model of DNA 3. Replication of DNA (5 hr) A. Semi conservative nature, Meselson and Stahl’s experiment B. Molecular mechanism: Strand separation, Synthesis of RNA primer, Formation of leading strand and lagging strands, Removal of primer, Joining of Okazaki Fragments, Proof reading activity of DNA polymerase C. Patterns of DNA replication: Cairn’s (Ø) model and Rolling Circle Mechanism (σ model) Unit II Gene expression and regulation 1. Fundamentals (1 hr) A. Central Dogma: The flow of genetic information B. Structure of the protein coding gene 2. Transcription (2 hr) A. Initiation: Role of Promoter, RNA polymerase, Sigma factor B. Elongation C. Termination: Rho independent and Rho dependent D. Intron, Exon, Cistron and Polycistronic mRNA 2. Genetic code: Triplet nature, Polarity, Degeneracy, Wobble phenomenon, near universality (2 hr) 3. Translation (3 hr) A. Initiation: role of initiation factors, 70 S initiation complex B. Elongation: binding of AA-tRNA to A site, peptide bond formation, translocation C. Termination: role of release factors. 4. Regulation of gene expression (2 hr) A. Negative inducible control of lactose operon B. Catabolite repression and positive control of lactose operon C. Negative repressible control of tryptophan operon
Unit III Mutation and DNA repair
1. Types of mutation (3 hr) A. Spontaneous mutations (i) Experimental proof for spontaneous nature of mutation: work of Joshua and E. Leaderberg (ii) Transition, Transversion, Insertion, Deletion, Development of AP sites B. Induced mutations (i) Chemical mutagenesis by 5-bromouracil, methyl-nitrosoguanidine and acridine orange (ii) Physical mutagenesis by UV radiations (iii) Biological mutagenesis by phage Mu 2. Transposable elements: Properties, Insertion Sequences (IS), Tn elements, Transposon mutagenesis (1 hr) 3. Effects of mutation in protein coding gene (2 hr) A. Forward mutations: silent, missense, nonsense, frame shift B. Reverse mutation: true reversion C. Suppressor mutation: intragenic and extragenic 4. Classes of bacterial mutants: (1 hr) Morphological, conditional, biochemical (nutritional) and resistant mutants 5. DNA repair mechanisms (3 hr) A. Direct: Photo-reactivation repair B. Indirect: Excision (base and nucleotide) repair, Mismatch repair C. SOS repair system. Unit IV Gene transfer among bacteria 1. Fundamentals: Zygote, Allele, Recombination, Horizontal and Vertical gene transfer, Production and fate of merozygote (1 hr) 2. Bacterial plasmids: (2 hr) General properties, functional types of plasmid, maintenance of plasmids 3. Gene transfer mechanisms (7 hr) A. Transformation: Competent cell, natural transformation and DNA uptake system in Gm +ve and Gm -ve bacteria, artificial transformation of bacteria using plasmid B. Transduction: i. Lytic and Lysogenic life cycles of bacteriophage ii. Generalized and Specialized transduction C. Conjugation: Formation of mating pairs, F+ X F- Mating, Hfr Conjugation, F’ Conjugation
1. Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology, J. M. Willey, L. M. Sherwood, C. J. Woolverton, 7 th Edition (2008), McGraw Hill Higher Education- USA 2. Principles of Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, 2nd Edition (Indian Edition) (2015), McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited –New Delhi
Bacterial Metabolism Unit I Fundamentals of metabolism 1. Energy: Its generation and conservation (2 hr) A. Free energy, the standard free energy change,redox potential, exothermic and endothermic reactions B. Energy rich compounds: Compounds with phosphoenhydride, acyl phosphate, enol phosphate, guanidine phosphate and thioester bonds. Structure and function of ATP 2. Enzyme kinetics (2 hr) A. Michaelis-Menten equation B. Lineweaver-Burk plot and its significance 3. Metabolic regulation (3 hr) A. Significance of metabolic regulation B. Types of regulatory mechanisms i. Metabolic channelling ii. Regulation of enzyme activity: Allosteric regulation, feedback inhibition, covalent modification, energy linked control, precursor activation 4. Fundamentals of biosynthesis (3 hr) A. Principles governing biosynthesis, strategies of biosynthesis B. Structure and function of NAD/NADP as reducing power C. Methods of studying biosynthesis: Study of enzymes, sequential induction, use of metabolic inhibitors, biochemical mutants, isotopes and pulse labelling technique
Unit II Fuelling reactions in heterotrophs
1. Catabolism of glucose: EMP, ED and PP pathways of glucose catabolism (2 hr) 2. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle: Catabolic and anabolic role of TCA cycle (1 hr) 3. Modes of ATP generation (4 hr) A. Substrate level phosphorylation B. Oxidative phosphorylation: Components of electron transport chain (ETC) in bacteria and their function, generation of proton motive force and its role, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation and chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis, structure and function of ATP phosphohydrolase, inhibitors and uncouplers C. Anaerobic respiration: Types of anaerobic respiration, ETC in nitrate respiration 4. Fermentation: Overview, lactic acid, ethanol, mixed acid and butanediol fermentations (1 hr) Page 6 of 14 5. Catabolism of fatty acids and proteins (2 hr) A. β-oxidation of fatty acids B. Catabolism of amino acids: deamination, decarboxylation, transamination, stickland reaction
Unit III Fuelling reactions in chemolithotrophs and phototrophs
1. Fuelling reactions in chemolithotrophs (4 hr) A. Physiological groups of chemolithotrophs B. Generation of ATP and reducing power in chemolithotrophs, role of forward and reverse electron transport chain 2. Fuelling reactions in phototrophs (6 hr) A. Physiological groups of phototrophs B. Photosynthetic pigments in phototrophic eubacteria C. Photosynthetic apparatus in phototrophic eubacteria D. Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation E. Photophosphorylation in halobacteria
Unit IV Biosynthesis
1. Feeder pathways and their significance (2 hr) A. Anaplerotic reactions B. Glyoxylate cycle 2. Assimilation of ammonia, nitrate, molecular nitrogen and sulphate (2 hr) 3. Carbohydrate biosynthesis (4 hr) A. Pathways for CO2 fixation: Calvin cycle, reductive TCA cycle B. Gluconeogenesis in heterotrophs C. Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan 4. Biosynthesis of saturated & unsaturated fatty acids, polymerization of fatty acids into lipids (2 hr) Reference Books: 1. General Microbiology, Stanier, R. Y., Ingrahm, J. L., Wheelis, M. L. and Painter, P. R. 5 thedn . (1995), Mac Millan Press Ltd., Hong Kong 2. Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology, J. M. Willey, L. M. Sherwood, C. J. Woolverton, 7 th Edition (2008), McGraw Hill Higher Education- USA 3. Principles of Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, 2nd Edition (Indian Edition) (2015), McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited –New Delhi Suggested Reading 1. Principles of Biochemistry, Cox, M. M. and Nelson, D. L. Lehninger 5 thedn (2008), W. H. Freeman and Company, USA.
Principles of Immunology Unit I Immune system, immunity and immune response
1. Cells and organs of the immune system (4 hr) A. Composition of the human blood: Types of white blood cells B. Types of lymphocyte: B-cells and T-cells C. Antigens presenting cells: neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells D. Differentiation of cells of immune system: MHC: Class I and II, HLA, clonal selection E. Primary (central) and secondary (peripheral) lymphoid organs 2. Immunity and its types (3 hr) A. Innate (native) and acquired (adaptive) immunity B. Innate immunity: species, racial and individual C. Acquired immunity: active and passive, natural and artificial D. Nonspecific and specific immunity 3. Immune response (IR) (3 hr) A. Concepts and basic functions B. Humoral and cell mediated immune response C. Characteristics of IR: Discrimination, diversity, specificity, memory and transferability D. Primary and secondary immune response
Unit II Antigens and antibodies
1. Antigens (4 hr) A. Concepts of antigen, immunogen, hapten, epitope B. Physico-chemical and biological properties of antigen C. Adjuvant and its types D. Types of antigens, bacterial antigens 2. Antibodies (4 hr) A. Concept of antibody, immunoglobulin, myeloma protein B. Basic structure of antibody C. Classes of antibody: Physico-chemical and biological properties D. Antibody diversity 3. Monoclonal antibodies: Production using hybridoma technology and its applications (2 hr)
Unit III Antigen-antibody reactions (serological reactions)
1. Mechanism of antigen-antibody reactions: zone phenomenon and lattice formation (1 hr) 2. Principles, types and applications of in vitro antigen-antibody reactions: (4 hr) A. Precipitation reaction B. Agglutination reaction C. Complement fixation reaction D. Immunofluorescence 3. Principles, types and applications of advanced antigen-antibody reactions: (5 hr) A. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) B. Radio immunoassay (RIA) C. Radio-Allergo-Sorbent test (RAST) D. Western blot E. Skin test
Unit IV Immune disorders and haematology
1. Immune disorders: hyper and hypo functioning of immune system A. Hypersensitivity and its types (2 hr) B. Autoimmunity and autoimmune disorders (2 hr) C. Immunodeficiency (1 hr) D. Tumor immunity (1 hr) E. Transplantation immunity, immunosuppression (1 hr) 2. Haematology (3 hr) A. Various blood group antigens and human blood groups B. Blood transfusion C. Brief introduction to blood banking
1. Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology, J. M. Willey, L. M. Sherwood, C. J. Woolverton, th Edition (2008), McGraw Hill Higher Education- USA 2. Principles of Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, 2nd Edition (Indian Edition) (2015), McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited –New Delhi 3. Baker and Silverton’s Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology, Baker F J, Silverton R E, Pallister C J, 7th edition (1998), Butterworths-Heinemann, Oxford, UK
Unit I Introduction to fermentation technology
1. Fundamental concepts of fermentation (1 hr) 2. Chronological development in industrial microbiology (3 hr) 3. Introduction to the component parts of fermentation process (3 hr) 4. Range of fermentation processes (3 hr)
Unit II Industrially important microorganisms
1. Screening (4 hr) A. Characteristics of an industrially ideal organism B. Primary screening of amylase, organic acid, antibiotics and amino acid producers C. Introduction to secondary screening 2. Strain improvement (4 hr) A. Strategies i. Selection of induced mutants ii. Selection of recombinants B. Strain improvement for modifications of properties other than yield. 3. Preservation: principle, methods and quality control (2 hr)
Unit III Fermentation media and inoculum development
1. Fermentation media (4 hr) A. Principles of media formulation B. Media ingredients: water, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, minerals, growth factors, buffers, chelators, precursors, inducers, inhibitors, antifoam agents 2. Sterilization of media (3 hr) A. Use of high pressure steam: principle, batch and continuous sterilization process B. Use of filtration: principle, types of filters. 3. Inoculum development: general principles for development of seed culture for bacterial, yeast and fungal processes (3 hr)
Unit IV Fermenter design
1. Stirred tank bioreactor (6 hr) A. Essential features (basic functions) of a bioreactor B. Body construction and design C. Devices of aeration and agitation D. Devices for monitoring pH, temperature, foam and dissolved oxygen 2. Special purpose bioreactors (4 hr) A. Air-lift fermenter, Tower fermenter, Cyclone fermenter, B. Bio-catalyst reactors
1. Principles of Fermentation Technology, Stanbury P F, Whitaker A and Hall SJ, (1995), 2nd edition, Pergamon Press, London, UK 2. Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction, Waites, M J and Morgan N L, (2002), Blackwell Science 3. Biotechnology: A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology, Crueger W and Crueger A, (2000), 2 nd edition, Panima Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, India 4. Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, El-Mansi E M T, Bryce CFA, Dahhou B, Sanchez S, Demain AL, Allman AR (eds), (2011), 3 rd edition, CRC Press; Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton 5. Industrial Microbiology, Casida LE, Jr. (1968), Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, India
Environmental Microbiology Unit I Microbial ecosystem and environment
1. Microbial ecosystem (4 hr) A. Introduction to populations, communities, ecosystems, microenvironment, ecological niche, microbial ecology and environmental microbiology B. Microbial consortia, biofilms and microbial mats C. Microorganisms and ecosystem D. Microorganism movement between ecosystems 2. Microbial habitat and environment (4 hr) A. Water as microbial habitat B. Soil as an environment for microorganisms C. Extreme environments
Unit II Microbial environmental processes
1. Microbiology of green house gases (4 hr) A. Soil microorganisms and atmosphere: Role of soil microorganisms in production and utilization of green house gases B. Methane based mutualism C. The rumen ecosystem 2. Role of microbes in soil fertility (3 hr) A. Symbiotic and non symbiotic nitrogen fixation by microorganisms B. Soil, Plant and Nutrients: Biodegradation of cellulose & lignin to increase soil organic matter 3. Geochemical process: Acid mine drainage (1 hr)
Unit III Pollution microbiology
1. Biological indicators of pollution (1 hr) Water pollution-coliforms & harmful algal blooms, Air pollution-lichens 2. Waste treatment and disposal (5 hr) A. Biological treatment of liquid waste: trickling filter, activated sludge process, biodisc system B. Biological treatment and disposal of solid waste: anaerobic sludge digestion, composting and sanitary landfills 3. Biodegradation of environmental pollutants (2 hr) A. Alkylbenzyl sulfonates Page 12 of 14 B. Chlorinated compounds C. Biomagnifications of DDT & Mercury
Unit IV Environmental biotechnology
1. Microbial processes (4 hr) A. Microbially enhanced oil recovery B. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons C. Bioleaching of copper 2. Microbial products (4 hr) A. Biofuels: ethanol, hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbons B. Biodegradable polymers (biodegradable plastics) C. Microbial pesticides
1. Principles of Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, 2nd Edition (Indian Edition) (2015), McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited –New Delhi 2. Microbiology, Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s J. M. Willey, L. M. Sherwood, C. J. Woolverton, 7 th Edition (2008),McGraw Hill Higher Education- USA 3. Microbiology, Pelczar Jr M. J., Chan E. C. S., Krieg N. R. 5th edition (1986), McGraw Hill Book Company NY
Microbiology Practicals (Practicals based on the theory papers MI-301 to MI-305.1)
1. Isolation of lac— mutants of Escherichia coli using UV radiations as mutagen. 2. Isolation of pigmentless mutant of Serratia marcescens using UV radiations as mutagen. 3. Isolation of streptomycin resistant mutants of Escherichia coli by gradient plate method. 4. Isolation of DNA (Demonstration only). 5. Estimation of glucose by Cole’s method. 6. Estimation of glucose by Nelson-Somogy’s method. 7. Estimation of protein by Folin-Lawry’s method. 8. Estimation of streptomycin by sodium nitroprusside method 9. Study of agglutination reaction: Widal test by slide agglutination & double dilution method. 10. Study of precipitation reaction: Rapid plasma regain (RPR) method. 11. Detection of HBsAg using ELISA test. 12. Determination of human blood group: ABO and Rh systems. 13. Estimation of hemoglobin by Sahli’s acid hematin method. 14. Total count of erythrocytes and leucocytes. 15. Differential count of leucocytes by Field’s method 16. Screening of industrially important organisms A. Primary screening of amylase producers. B. Primary screening of organic acid producers C. Primary screening of antibiotic producers by crowded plate method 17. Determination of OTR under static, sparging and shake flask condition by sulfite oxidation method. 18. Isolation, cultivation and microscopic identification of economically important fungi — Yeast, Neurospora, Fusarium, Alternaria, Curvularia and Helminthosporium
Genetic Engineering Unit I Tools of rDNA technology 1. Fundamentals: rDNA technology, genetic engineering, cloning (1 hr) 2. Enzymes: Restriction endonucleases, Reverse transcriptase, Terminal transferase, Alkaline phosphatase, DNA ligases (3 hr) 3. Cloning vectors (4 hr) A. Criteria for selection of cloning vector B. Types of vector: plasmid vector (pBR322), phage vector (λ), cosmid, shuttle vector – yEP and Ti plasmid 4. Genetic probes, primers and reporter genes (Green Fluorescent Protein) (1 hr) 5. Host cell for cloning: properties of good host, prokaryotic and eukaryotic host cells (1 hr)
Unit II Techniques for genetic engineering
Principle, method and applications of following techniques 1. Gene editing: Site directed Mutagenesis (2 hr) 2. Gene amplification: Polymerase Chain Reaction (2 hr) 3. Gene detection by hybridization: Southern blotting (2 hr) 4. Gene sequencing: Sanger’s dideoxy chain termination method (2 hr) 5. Gene expression: DNA microarray (2 hr)
Unit III rDNA technology
1. Obtaining desired DNA fragment: Isolation from donor cell – shot gun cloning and construction of genomic library, construction of cDNA library, chemical synthesis of DNA (4 hr) 2. Preparation of rDNA: Protocol for joining isolated DNA fragment with cloning vector (2 hr) 3. Transfer of rDNA in to suitable host cell: Transformation, Gene gun, Microinjection, Protoplast Fusion, and Electroporation. (2 hr) 4. Selection of recombinant clone: Colony hybridization technique, Use of marker genes, X- gal dye and reporter gene (2 hr)
Unit IV Applications of rDNA technology
1. Medical applications: Recombinant vaccine (Hepatitis-B), Recombinant protein (Insulin) (4 hr) 2. Agricultural applications: Transgenic plants resistant to microbial pathogens & insect pests (4 hr) 3. Environmental applications: Environmental genomics – metagenomics (1 hr) 4. Social impacts of rDNA technology (ELSI) (1 hr)
1. Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology, J. M. Willey, L. M. Sherwood, C. J. Woolverton, 7 th Edition (2008), McGraw Hill Higher Education- USA 2. Principles of Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, 2nd Edition (Indian Edition) (2015), McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited –New Delhi 3. Biotechnology: The Biological Principles, Trevan M. D., Boffey S., Goulding K. H. and Stanbury S. (1987) Tata – McGraw Hill, New Delhi – India. 4. Biotechnology, U. Satyanarayana, 1st Edition (Reprinted 2008), Books and Allied (P) Ltd. Kolkata
Virology and Mycology Unit I Introduction to viruses and sub-viral entities
1. General characteristics and structural organization of virus (3 hr) 2. Classification of viruses: ICNV and Cryptogram system of viral classification (2 hr) 3. Cultivation of viruses: (3 hr) A. Cultivation in animal B. Cultivation in embryonated eggs C. In vitro culture: cell lines, primary and secondary cell lines, continuous cell lines, cytopathic effects 4. Sub-viral entities: viroids, virusoids, prions, introduction to persistent, latent and slow viruses, oncogenic viruses (2 hr)
Unit II Bacteriophages, plant viruses and animal viruses
1. Lytic cycle (T4 Phage) (3 hr) A. One step growth curve experiment, burst size B. Phage adsorption and penetration, intracellular development, early and late events, replication of phage chromosome, phage morphogenesis (assembly) and release 2. Single stranded DNA and RNA phages: ΦX174 and MS2. (1 hr) 3. Lysogenic cycle (lambda phage): Mechanism of establishment, induction, and replication. (2 hr) 4. Plant Viruses: Introduction and replication of plant viruses (TMV) (1 hr) 5. Animal viruses: Introduction and replication (adsorption, penetration, uncoating, replication, synthesis and assembly, and release) of animal viruses in general (HIV) (3 hr)
Unit III Introduction to fungi
1. General characters: Somatic structure, ultra-structure of fungal cell, hyphal modifications, asexual and sexual spores (4 hr) 2. Cultivation of fungi (3 hr) A. Principles of fungal nutrition B. Cultivation media & methods, slide culture technique, prevention of bacterial contamination 3. Economic importance of fungi (3 hr) A. Primary and secondary metabolites of fungi and their importance B. Overview of plant and animal fungal diseases
Unit III Reproduction and classification of fungi
1. Fungal classification: Criteria used for classification, recent classification system (2 hr) 2. Brief outline of following classes of fungi: Salient features, reproduction and economic importance in general A. Myxomycetes (2 hr) B. Eumycetes (6 hr) i. Chytridiomycetes ii. Phycomycetes (Phycomycotina) iii. Ascomycetes (Ascomycotina) iv. Basidiomycetes (Basiomycotina) v. Deutromycetes (Deuteromycotina)
1. Introductory Mycology, Alexopoulos C J, Mims C W, Blackwell M, (1996) 4th edition, Blackwell Publishing. 2. Introduction to Fungi, Webster J, R W S Weber (2007) 3rd edition, Cambridge University Press. 3. Principles of Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, 2nd Edition (Indian Edition) (2015), McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited –New Delhi 4. Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology, J. M. Willey, L. M. Sherwood, C. J. Woolverton, 7 th Edition (2008), McGraw Hill Higher Education- USA 5. Basic Virology, Wagner E K, Hewlett N J, Bloom D C and Camerini D (2008) 3rd edition Blackwell Publishing Ltd UK.
Medical Microbiology Unit I Relationship between human body and microbe
1. Normal microbiota (normal flora) of the human body (4 hr) A. Importance, origin and establishment B. Microbiota of various body parts C. Gnotobiotic life and gnotobiosis 2. Host-parasite relationship (6 hr) A. Concept of host-parasite relationship and factors affecting it B. Microbial pathogenicity: C. Overview of bacterial and viral pathogenicity D. Factors affecting the process of infection E. Pathogenicity: (a) Invasiveness: role of structures and secretions of bacteria (b) Toxigenicity: Protein and LPS toxins -properties and mode of action
Unit II Epidemiology of infectious disease and vaccines
1. Epidemiology (6 hr) A. Concepts of epidemiology B. Epidemiological types of infection C. Techniques used to study epidemiology D. Epidemiological markers E. Infectious disease cycle F. Nosocomial infections: sources, transmission and control 2. Vaccines (4 hr) A. Concept immunoprophylaxis B. Types of vaccine C. Schedule of vaccination (followed in India) D. Hazards of vaccination
Unit III Clinical Microbiology
1. Specimen: types of specimen, methods of collection, storage and transportation (2 hr) 2. Methods used for diagnosis and identification of pathogens (8 hr) A. Microscopy B. Growth and biochemical characteristics C. Clinical immunology D. Pathological changes in blood and body fluids and tissues E. Significance of computer and possible uses of biosensors
Unit IV Infectious diseases of human being
Study of following diseases with respect to etiological agent, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis and control. 1. Airborne diseases: Tuberculosis, Swine flu (2 hr) 2. Food and waterborne diseases: Typhoid, Hepatitis A (2 hr) 3. Contagious diseases: Syphilis, AIDS (2 hr) 4. Insect borne diseases: Malaria, Dengue (2 hr) 5. Zoonoses: Rabies, Anthrax (2 hr)
1. Principles of Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, 2nd Edition (Indian Edition) (2015), McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited –New Delhi 2. Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology, J. M. Willey, L. M. Sherwood, C. J. Woolverton, 7 th Edition (2008), McGraw Hill Higher Education- USA 3. Baker and Silverton’s Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology, Baker F J, Silverton R E, Pallister C J, (1998), 7th edition, Butterworths-Heinemann, Oxford, UK
Unit I Fermenter operation and scale up
1. Modes of operation: surface culture fermentation, submerged fermentation (batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentations), solid substrate fermentation (4 hr) 2. Operating parameters and their control: aseptic operation, mass transfer of oxygen, foam, pH, temperature (2 hr) 3. Safety procedures (2 hr) A. Containment B. Clean room environment 4. Introduction to scale up (2 hr)
Unit II Downstream processing
1. Introduction (1 hr) 2. Removal of microbial cells and suspended solids (3 hr) A. Foam separation B. Precipitation C. Filtration D. Centrifugation 3. Cell disruption methods (2 hr) A. Physico-mechanical methods B. Chemical methods 4. Product concentration and purification (2 hr) A. Liquid-liquid extraction B. Membrane processes 5. Finishing stages (1 hr) A. Drying B. Crystallization 6. Effluent treatment (1 hr)
Unit III Product analysis and fermentation economics
1. Detection and assay of fermentation products (6 hr) A. Physical assays: Titration and gravimetric analysis, turbidity and cell yield determination B. Chemical assays: Chromatography, Spectrophotometry C. Biological assays: Microbial assay Page 8 of 12 2. Microbial quality assurance (2 hr) A. Sterility testing B. Pyrogen testing (LAL test) 3. Introduction to fermentation economics (2 hr)
1. Principles of Fermentation Technology, Stanbury P F, Whitaker A and Hall SJ, (1995) 2 nd edition, Pergamon Press, London, UK. 2. Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction, Waites, M J and Morgan N L, (2002) Blackwell Science. 3. Biotechnology: A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology, Crueger W and Crueger A, (2000) 2 nd edition, Panima Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, India. 4. Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, El-Mansi E M T, Bryce CFA, Dahhou B, Sanchez S, Demain AL, Allman AR (eds), (2011) 3 rd edition, CRC Press; Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton. 5. Industrial Microbiology, Casida LE, Jr. (1968), Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, India.
Unit -1 Introduction to biotechnology
1. Introduction & historical background of biotechnology (1 hr) 2. Old and new biotechnology (2 hr) 3. Biotechnology: an interdisciplinary & multidisciplinary science (2 hr) 4. Scope and importance of biotechnology (major areas of biotechnology) (2 hr) 5. Biotechnology in Gujarat & India: Education and Research (1 hr)
Unit: 2 Instrumental methods
Principle, method, and applications of following methods 1. UV-Vis spectroscopy (1 hr) 2. Centrifugation and its types in brief (2 hr) 3. Chromatography: Paper, TLC, HPLC (2 hr) 4. Electrophoresis: SDS-PAGE and Agarose gel electrophoresis (2 hr) 5. Biosensors (1 hr)
Unit: 3 Cellular & molecular techniques
Principle, method and applications of following techniques 1. Animal cell culture: primary & secondary cell culture, continuous cell lines (2 hr) 2. Plant tissue culture: Introduction to PTC, callus culture (2 hr) 3. Northern blotting (2 hr) 4. CRISPR CAS 9 (2 hr)
Unit: 4 Areas of application of biotechnology
1. Plant biotechnology: transgenic plants-herbicide resistant plants & golden rice (2 hr) 2. Animal biotechnology (2 hr) A. Transgenic animals- features of animal suitable for gene transfer B. Transgenic cow for lectoferrin production C. Transgenic sheep for wool production 3. Microbial biotechnology: baker’s yeast production (2 hr) 4. Enzyme biotechnology: analytical, industrial and therapeutic applications (1 hr) 5. Intellectual property rights: Introduction to IPR, patents in biotechnology (1 hr)
1. Basic Biotechnology, Colin Ratledge and Bjorn Kristiansen (2006) Cambridge University Press, 3rd edition. 2. B. Sc. Edition Biotechnology, B.D. Singh 5th Edition (Reprinted 2015), Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, Punjab 3. Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wilson K and Walker J (2005) (6th Edn), Cambridge 4. Biotechnology: The Biological Principles, Trevan M. D., Boffey S., Goulding K. H. and Stanbury S. (1987) Tata – McGraw Hill, New Delhi – India. 5. Biotechnology, U. Satyanarayana, 1st Edition (Reprinted 2008), Books and Allied (P) Ltd. Kolkata 6. Introduction to biotechnology, Ashim K. Chakravarty, (2013) Higher Education Division– Oxford University Press, Oxford-UK 7. CRISPR-Cas: A Laboratory Manual, edited by Jennifer Doudna and Prashant Mali, (2016) Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory, NY, USA
Microbiology Practicals (Practicals based on the theory papers MI-307 to MI-311.1)
1. Separation of amino acids by paper chromatography. 2. Separation of amino acids by thin layer chromatography. 3. Immobilization of cells by calcium-alginate entrapment method and activity check by methylene blue reduction test. (Demonstration only). 4. Use of enzyme as analytical tool: Glucose estimation by GOD-POD method. 5. Isolation of bacteriophage from sewage. 6. Isolation and cultivation of yeasts. 7. Cultivation of and microscopic examination of molds by slide culture technique. 8. Study of plant diseases caused by Virus and Fungi — Mosaic, red rot, rust, smut, wilt, leaf curl, powdery mildew, downy mildew. 9. Isolation, cultivation and identification of gram-negative bacteria—Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella paratyphi B. 10. Characterization of Gram-negative bacteria based on biochemical reactions using rapid identification kit. (Demonstration only). 11. Study of antibiogram (using multidisc). 12. Physical and chemical analysis of urine. 13. Estimation of blood urea by diacetyl monoxime method (DAM). 14. Study of permanent slides A Insect vectors: Female anopheles mosquito, head louse, tick, flea, mite. B. Microorganisms: Actinomycetes, yeast, bacteroids, acid-fast bacilli, spirochetes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Clostridium tetani and Plasmodium vivax 15. Fermentative production of amylase and its activity check. 16. Bioassay of penicillin/ampicillin using Bacillus subtilis. 17. Sterility testing of pharmaceutical product.